Reflux is a malfunction of the esophagus-stomach-system and indicates that fluids are going in a reverse direction from the stomach back into the esophagus – and may go all the way up to the larynx (laryngopharyngeal reflux – LPR). Stomach fluids are mostly acidic, contain pepsin, attack the mucosa and thus may be felt in the upper airway causing a great variety of symptoms like soreness of thraot, and may induce throat clearing, coughing and hoarseness.

In severe cases, LPR can cause a sudden closure reflex of the larynx with a spasm-like,acute choking feeling that induces momentarily a panic reaction when for many seconds breathing is totally blocked (previously this was called a VCD attack).

Comprehensive assessment of the pharynx, larynx, oesophagus and trachea can be offered in an ambulatory examination with an absolutely pain-free trans-nasal flexible endoscopy in the unsedated patient. The video-based procedures are called transnasal laryngoscopy (TNL), transnasal esophagoscopy (TNE), transnasal tracheoscopy (TNT). Therapy may be multimodal and helps to get rid of reflux and related symptoms. To know more read the article about Laryngopharyngeal Reflux.